Welcome to Family Law
                Consulting, LLC

Back to Family Law
                Consulting LLC

23 March, 2019
Washington State
Association of Family and Conciliation Courts

Click here
                                to access PP handout (patience please)
For the love of Fluffy:
Transitional objects in high conflict divorce
(morning program - click on the image to access the PP handout)
Benjamin D. Garber, Ph.D.

"How do you get refueled?"
They may be legally divorced.
Now they need to get emotionally divorced!
(afternoon program -
click on the image to access the PP handout)
Benjamin D. Garber, Ph.D.

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                Consultants, PLLC
Who we are
About Dr. Garber
Keeping Kids Out Of The Middle
 Keeping families out of court
How do you take care of yourself?

Keeping Kids Out of the Middle

Developmental Psychology For Family Law

Holding Tight/Letting Go

These materials are provided for educational purposes only.
Please do not distribute or allow persons not enrolled in the seminar to access this page.

Resources and citations  in order of appearance
(use CNTRL + F to search this page for keywords)

Print this list of select citations in pdf format Access pdf document here via

Morning Keynote:

For the love of Fluffy: Transitional objects in high conflict divorce

(in order of appearance)


Read the FLUFFY case here  Read FLUFFY

Gould , J. W. Martindale , D. A. (2007). The art and science of child custody evaluations. New York: Wiley,

Pickar, D. B. (2007). On being a child custody evaluator: Professional and personal challenges, risks, and rewards. Family Court Review, 45(1), 103-115.

Howard Gardner (1982). Art, Mind, and Brain: A Cognitive Approach to Creativity.

Pazaratz, J., writing in Chomos v Hamilton, 2016 ONSC 5208 (CanLII),

retrieved on 2017-03-05 excerpted §67-73

Kalpidou, M. (2012). Sensory processing relates to attachment to childhood comfort objects of college students. Early Child Development and Care, 182(12), 1563-1574.

Steir, A. J., & Brauch Lehman, E. (2000). Attachment to transitional objects: Role of maternal personality and mother–toddler interaction. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(3), 340-350.

Litt, C. J. (1986). Theories of transitional object attachment: An overview. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9(3), 383-399.

Fortuna, K., Baor, L., Israel, S., Abadi, A., & Knafo, A. (2014). Attachment to inanimate objects and early childcare: A twin study. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Article ID 486.

Donate-Bartfield, E., & Passman, R. H. (2004). Relations Between Children's Attachments to Their Mothers and to Security Blankets. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(3), 453-458.

Passman, R. H. (1987). Attachments to inanimate objects: Are children who have security blankets insecure? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(6), 825-830.

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Applegate, JS. (1989). The transitional object reconsidered: some sociocultural variations and their implications. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 6: 38–51

Hong, K. M., & Townes, B. D. (1976). Infants' attachment to inanimate objects: A cross-cultural study. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 15(1), 49-61.

Ybarra, G. J., Passman, R. H., & Eisenberg, C. S. (2000). The presence of security blankets or mothers (or both) affects distress during pediatric examinations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 322-330.

McCullough, C. (2009) A Child's Use of Transitional Objects in Art Therapy to Cope With Divorce. Art Therapy, 26:1, 19-25

Markt, C., & Johnson, M. A. (1993). Transitional objects, pre-sleep rituals, and psychopathology. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23(3), 161-173

Tai, K., Zheng, X., & Narayanan, J. (2011). Touching a teddy bear mitigates negative effects of social exclusion to increase prosocial behavior. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(6), 618-626

Erkolahti, Ritva; Nystrom, Marjaana; Vahlberg, Tero; & Ebeling, Hanna (2016). Transitional object use in adolescence: A developmental phenomenon or a sign of problems? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 70(7), 536-541.

Barlow, M. R., Hutchinson, C. A., Newton, K., Grover, T., & Ward, L. (2012). Childhood neglect, attachment to companion animals, and stuffed animals as attachment objects in women and men. Anthrozoös, 25(1), 111-119.

Fasah, S. (2018), Pat‐Downs But No Hugs: Why Prison Visitation Protocol Should be Changed to Help Keep Familial Structures Intact. Family Court Review, 56: 135-149

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Himel, Andrea; Paulseth, Hon. Debra; & Cohen, Jessica (2016). 1‐800‐Skype‐me.

Family Court Review, Vol 54(3), 457-476

Hawkins, R. D., Williams, J. M., & Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Scottish SPCA). (2017). Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(5), 490.

Zeanah, C. H., Berlin, L. J., & Boris, N. W. (2011). Practitioner review: Clinical applications of attachment theory and research for infants and young children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(8), 819-833.

Lally, Stephen J.; Higuchi, Shirley Ann; & Joyner-Hall, Jennifer (2014). Setting up a parenting coordination project in the courts: The District of Columbia program. In Higuchi, Shirley Ann (Ed) & Lally, Stephen J. (Ed). (2014). Parenting coordination in postseparation disputes: A comprehensive guide for practitioners , (pp. 123-140). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association,

Hartson, J. & Payne, B. (2006). Creating Effective Parenting Plans: A developmental approach for lawyers and divorce professionals. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association

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Afternoon program:

“How do you get refueled?”

They may be legally divorced. Now they need to get emotionally divorced!

(in order of appearance)


Austin, William G. (2018). Parental gatekeeping and child custody evaluation: Part iii: Protective gatekeeping and the overnights “conundrum.” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage

Austin, William G.; Rappaport, Sol (2018). Parental gatekeeping forensic model and child custody evaluation: Social capital and application to relocation disputes. Journal of Child Custody: Research, Issues, and Practices, Vol 15(1), pp. 62-63.

APA (American Psychological Association). 2011. Resilience Guide for Parents

and Teachers. Retrieved 2.11.2017 from www.apa.org/helpcenter/resilience.aspx

Barnes, A. J. (2016). Childhood stress and resilience. In M. R. Korin (Ed.), Health  promotion for children and adolescents (pp. 85-98).

Bennett, K. (2015). Emotional and personal resilience through life. British Office of Government for Science. Retrieved 12.08.2017 from https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/~kmb/MyPublishedPapers/Bennett2015a.pdf

Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Garber, Benjamin D. (2009). Attachment methodology in custody evaluation: Four hurdles standing between developmental theory and forensic application. Journal of Child Custody, 6(1&2), 38-61.

Garber, B. D. (2012). Security by association? Mapping attachment theory onto family law practice. Family Court Review, 50(3), 467-470.

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Garber, Benjamin D. (2016). Exploring a process-oriented forensic family observation protocol. Family Court Review, 54(2), 261-276

Garber, B.D. (2011). Parental alienation and the dynamics of the enmeshed dyad: Adultification, parentification and infantilization. Family Court Review, 49(2), 322-335.

Waters , E. Beauchaine , T. P. (2003). Are there really patterns of attachment? Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology, 39, 417-422.

Garber, Benjamin D. (2004). Directed co-parenting intervention: Conducting child centered interventions in parallel with highly conflicted co-parents. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(1), 55-64

Fridhandler, B., & Lehmer, M. (2014). Ethical issues in coparent counseling. Journal of Child Custody: Research, Issues, and Practices, 11(2), 139-158.

Deutsch, R. M., Misca, G. and Ajoku, C. (2018), Critical Review of Research Evidence of Parenting Coordination's Effectiveness. Family Court Review, 56: 119-134. 

Brown, W. R., Behrman, L. and Zimmerman, J. (2017), Duel or Dual: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Parenting Coordination for Uber‐Conflicted Parenting Relationships. Family Court Review, 55: 345-361.

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Kirkland, K. (2010). Positive coping among experienced parenting coordinators: A recipe for success. Journal of Child Custody: Research, Issues, and Practices, 7(1), 61-77

Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, Task Force on Parenting Coordination. (2006). Guidelines for parenting coordination. Family Court Review, 44, 164–181.

Garber, Benjamin D. (2015).  Cognitive-behavioral methods in high conflict divorce: Systematic desensitization adapted to parent-child reunification interventions.  Family Court Review, 53(1), 96-112.

Wolpe, J. (1954). Reciprocal inhibition as the main basis of psychotherapeutic effects. Proceedings of the South African Psychological Association, 5, 14.

Wolpe , J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Cohen, L.J., and Vesper, J.H. (2001). Forensic Stress Disorder. Stress: The International Journal on the biology of Stress, 25(1), 1-25

Miller, M and Bornstein, B. (Eds.), (2013). Stress, trauma, and wellbeing in the legal system. Oxford Press

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Compassion fatigue and burnout

(extended references for your information)


Adams, R. E., Boscarino, J. A., & Figley, C. R. (2006). Compassion fatigue and psychological distress among social workers: A validation study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 103-108.

Bell, H. (2003). Strengths and secondary trauma in family violence work. Social Work, 48(4), 513-522

Ben-Porat, A., & Itzhaky, H. (2009). Implications of treating family violence for the therapist: Secondary traumatization, vicarious traumatization, and growth. Journal of Family Violence, 24(7), 507-515.

Bourassa, D. (2012). Examining self-protection measures guarding adult protective services social workers against compassion fatigue. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(9), 1699-1715.

Boyas, J., & Wind, L. H. (2010). Employment-based social capital, job stress, and employee burnout: A public child welfare employee structural model. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(3), 380-388.

Bride, B. E. (2007). Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among social workers. Social Work, 52(1), 63-70.

Buchanan, M., Anderson, J. O., Uhlemann, M. R., & Horwitz, E. (2006). Secondary traumatic stress: An investigation of Canadian mental health workers. Traumatology, 12(4), 272-281

Cunningham, M. (2003). Impact of trauma work on social work clinicians: Empirical findings. Social Work, 48(4), 451-459.

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de Figueiredo, S., Yetwin, A., Sherer, S., Radzik, M., & Iverson, E. (2014). A cross-disciplinary comparison of perceptions of compassion fatigue and satisfaction among service providers of highly traumatized children and adolescents. Traumatology, 20(4), 286-295.

Finklestein, M., Stein, E., Greene, T., Bronstein, I., & Solomon, Z. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder and vicarious trauma in mental health professionals. Health & Social Work, 40(2), e25-e31.

Goldblatt, H., Buchbinder, E., Eisikovits, Z., & Arizon-Mesinger, I. (2009). Between the professional and the private: The meaning of working with intimate partner violence in social workers' private lives. Violence Against Women, 15(3), 362-384.

Harrison, R. L., & Westwood, M. J. (2009). Preventing vicarious traumatization of mental health therapists: Identifying protective practices. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(2), 203-219.

Hesse, A. R. (2002). Secondary trauma: How working with trauma survivors affects therapists. Clinical Social Work Journal, 30(3), 293-309.

Kapoulitsas, M., & Corcoran, T. (2015). Compassion fatigue and resilience: A qualitative analysis of social work practice. Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice, 14(1), 86-101.

Negash, S., & Sahin, S. (2011). Compassion fatigue in marriage and family therapy: Implications for therapists and clients. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37(1), 1-13.

Salloum, A., Kondrat, D. C., Johnco, C., & Olson, K. R. (2015). The role of self-care on compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary trauma among child welfare workers. Children and Youth Services Review, 49, 54-61.

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For courts and judicial officers
For lawyers, attorneys and pro se
For Guardians ad
                        forensic family evaluators
Read more here

Ten Forms for Forensic Family Evaluation

Roadmap to the Parenting Plan Workbook

The HealthyParent's ABCs

Caveat lector